Annam to Brahman

Ahara – 9 June 2019

In the Indian Vedic tradition, food, annam, is not just a biological substance that sustains and nourishes life, but is equated with Brahman, the ultimate truth, essence, origin and goal of all that exists in the world.

‘Annaath Purushaha’, declares the Taithiriya Upanishad, ‘from food was born man’, tracing the human being’s origin from the ether, air, fire, water, earth, plant life, and finally what it calls annam, food.

The Upanishad acknowledges that indeed, all life is born from food, and returns to food, but in true Vedic style, it goes beyond biology. It emphasises a deeply metaphysical understanding of what food is and what role it plays, not only in the cycle of life, but in the relationship of the human being with the world around him, with the devas, and with the ultimate ‘truth’ Brahman.

‘Annan na nindhyat’, ‘Annan na parichakshita,’ it warns, ‘never disrespect food.’ Those who view and understand food as Brahman, will not only obtain food and material prosperity, but Brahmavarchas, the effulgence of the Veda, and mahan kirti, great glory.

Small wonder then, that Vedic culture is equally emphatic about the value of giving food. The famous Rig Vedic Suktha, referred to as the Bhikshu Suktha (Rig Veda X.117), is a paean to generous giving. Those who are stronger, more fortunate, should give to the ones in need, it exhorts. Moreover, says the sixth rik in the suktha, “who eats alone has only evil,” kevalagho bhavathi kevaladi. As for the giver, the very first rik in the suktha declares – “the wealth of one who gives never becomes exhausted.”

Therefore, says the Taittiriya Upanishad, Annam Bahu Kurvitha – “produce a lot of food. Do not refuse one at your door. Food that is prepared and given in the best way possible, returns to the giver in the best way possible.” (Ethadvai Mukhatonnam Raadham).

The Upanishad concludes, I am the food (Aham annam), I am the eater (Ahamannadho), I am the first in the order of the world (prathamaja ritasya), I exist before the Gods, (purvan devebhyo), and finally, who gives me has protected me. (Yoma dadathi sa idheva ma vaha.)

The Veda goes further to emphasise not only the value of giving food (even a little food offered, it says, suffuses the whole world and the world hereafter!), but that it is both prana and apana, the in and out breath, thus giving life as well as taking it away. Which is where the science of Ayurveda comes in. After all, what you eat is what you are, and the right ‘ahara krama’ will put you on the path to not only health and long life, but, coupled with sadhana, ultimate realisation of the self’s identity and purpose.

The History of the Development of Ayurvedic Medicine in Russia

The following is a research paper authored by Dr. Boris Vladimirovich Ragozin, Department of Ayurveda, Institute of Oriental Medicine, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia – and has been reproduced with his permission. Link to Dr. Ragozin:

Dr. Boris Vladimirovich Ragozin, Department of Ayurveda, Institute of Oriental Medicine, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

Ayurveda is one of the world’s oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in the modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market.


In 1989, after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, Soviet doctors began to express strong interest in Ayurveda for the first time. The negotiations between the governments of India and the USSR resulted in the opening of an Ayurvedic medical center in Minsk. Ayurvedic practitioners invited from India had been tasked with treating children affected by the explosion at the nuclear power plant, as well as with developing ways of treating radiation sickness.[1]

In 1990 a special department of the Ministry of Healthcare of the former USSR was created in order to integrate traditional Ayurvedic medicine into the Russian healthcare system. In the same year, Ayurvedic medicine course was introduced in Moscow with the support of the Ministry of Healthcare of the USSR. Some 300 doctors were trained and 300 academic certificates were issued.

In 1991 the first Russian professional medical association of practitioners of traditional and folk medicine (Russian Association of Traditional Medicine) was registered with the aim of training and registering practitioners of traditional and Oriental medicine.

From 1996 to 1998 Ayurveda was included in the state “register of medical practices” and was subject to licensing. Unfortunately, after 2003 these licenses were not renewed. For unknown reasons, the ministerial department for integration was disbanded and in 1998, despite a very positive experience of its practice in Russia, Ayurveda was excluded from the list of medical activities.

From 1996 to 2005 the first Ayurvedic medical center called “NAAMI” headed by Dr. S. A. Mayskaya was active in Moscow. Several Ayurvedic practitioners from India, including Noushad Ali Tachaparamban (Doctor of Medicine), Mohammedali P. K. (Doctor of Medicine) and Unnikrishnan Thacharakkal, practised there. During this period, the center provided medical assistance to over 2000 people.

Between 1996 and 1998 those affected by the Chernobyl nuclear plant disaster were treated in Moscow by a joint team of Russian doctors and Ayurvedic practitioners from India led by Noushad Ali Tachaparamban. Ayurvedic methods of treatment were applied to 85 patients. The most common complaints presented by patients were headaches, sleep disorders, pain in the joints and spine, irritability and fatigue, all characteristic of radiation damage. Many patients also manifested symptoms of gastritis, enterocolitis, peptic ulcers, high blood pressure, significant immune deficiency and signs of osteoporosis. Over the course of 2 – 3 months these patients received comprehensive Ayurvedic therapy. As a result, the majority of patients showed an improvement in their subjective well-being, complete relief from headaches and joint pain, a halt of the degenerative processes and better tissue regeneration, while all patients have demonstrated a significant increase of immunity and reduction in the number of respiratory infections.[2]

In 1996 – 1998 the Institute of Medical and Social Rehabilitation held 9–month–long courses as part of the programme called “The fundamental principles of Ayurveda” as well as a year-long course called “The introductory course to Ayurveda”. The courses were taught by Noushad Ali Tachaparamban together with Professor of Ayurvedic medicine Agnivesh K.R. Over a period of two years, more than 50 Russian doctors have completed the course.[1]

Between 1996 and 998 Ayurvedic doctors under the supervision of doctors of allopathic medicine have treated 105 children aged between 3 and 16 years old at the Moscow Research Institute of Paediatrics and Paediatric Surgery of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation. The positive results of this treatment have been documented. The research included children with bronchial asthma,[3] gastrointestinal disorders, cerebral palsy, vegetative-vascular dystonia and scoliosis. Throughout the treatment the children’s medical condition was monitored on a daily basis using a wide range of clinical, laboratory and instrumental electrophysiological methods (EEG, REG, ECG, ultrasound, x-ray etc.). After the inpatient treatment, the observation continued on an outpatient basis. After their treatment using Ayurvedic methods that included herbal remedies, massage and yoga, 95% of the children have demonstrated high and fairly stable (up to 2 years) clinical results in connection with their primary disease and related complaints such as headaches, vestibulopathy, sleep disorders, fatigue as well as psychoemotional irritability etc. Children with cerebral palsy have demonstrated improved coordination, increased muscle strength, enhanced gait stability as well as better hemodynamics and an improved performance of the bioelectrical activity of the brain.[1] The Ayurvedic Rasāyana method has also proved its positive effect on 32 children diagnosed with oligophrenia. The children have demonstrated improvements in their behaviour and mental state as well as their immune and physical development.[2]

During the Ayurvedic treatment, in addition to complete relief from complaints and regression of the main clinical symptoms, there was also a noted positive dynamics of somatic manifestations and neurological disorders, and an improvement in cerebral hemodynamics, which proves a direct and positive effect of the treatment during all stages of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Not a single child has manifested any complications, side effects, toxic or allergic reactions to the Ayurvedic medications used. The experience of applying Ayurvedic methods in paediatrics has demonstrated the possibility of their use and their effectiveness in treating a number of diseases.

Moreover, a whole range of methods used in Ayurvedic medicine was developed and adapted for paediatric practice by A. V. Kapustin et al.[4]

The Head physician of the Moscow Research Institute of Paediatrics and Paediatric Surgery of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, the Honoured Doctor of the Russian Federation Osokina G. G. has concluded that it would be useful to continue studying long-term results of Ayurvedic treatment methods and exploring the possibilities of application of these methods in treating other significant diseases in children.

Between 1999 and 2010 a magazine called “Ayurveda – the science of life” was published in St. Petersburg. Its editor-in-chief, Vetrov I. I.,[5] has greatly contributed to the development of Ayurvedic and Tibetan medicine in Russia. He also headed the “Dhanvantari” medical center in St. Petersburg, conducted extensive research in the field of Ayurvedic medicine and has written a number of books on the subject.[6]

From 2002 to 2009 Vetrov I. I. headed the Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine at the Mechnikov State Medical Academy (now the North-Western State Medical University named after I. I. Mechnikov). Dozens of doctors have received training in Ayurveda from Indian and Russian practitioners.

In 2003 the “Vsya Ayurveda” (“All about Ayurveda”) educational project, which is still actively running today, was launched. The aim of the project was the development and popularisation of Ayurveda in Russia. As part of the project, the first online Ayurvedic store in Russia was created (, which is the largest specialised store on the Russian internet. In 2011 – 2012 a club, a video channel and a community have been established. The authors of the “Vsya Ayurveda” project took part in the 2013 Ayurvedic conference and have been organising a yearly Ayurvedic conference since October 2014, gathering all Indian and Russian Ayurvedic doctors and practitioners working in Russia with the aim of popularising Ayurveda in the country.

From 2003 to 2015 an educational course taught by Prof. Subotyalov M. A. was offered by the Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University. During this period, the course was taken by some 750 people, including 150 practitioners of modern medicine. Since 2015 the program is being continued within the framework of the National Ayurvedic Medical Association (NAMA). The association is engaged in training specialists and conducting research in the field of Ayurvedic medicine.

In 2005 the Ayurveda Russia–India Association (ARIA) was created and is still active today. In 2005 more than 40 doctors were taught by the Association with the assistance of the Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education (RMAPO) of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation as part of the course called “The fundamental principles of Ayurveda”. The course was taught by professors of Ayurveda from India, such as Dr. Agnivesh K. R., Dr. Dilipkumar K. V. T. and Dr. Kuldip Kohli.

In 2006, the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation approved a standard programme of further professional education for doctors on the fundamental principles of traditional Ayurvedic medicine (144 hours). The programme was developed by the staff of the Department of non-pharmacological methods of treatment and clinical physiology of the I. M. SechenovFirst Moscow State Medical University and the staff of the Faculty of Organisation of national and international public health of the Department of physical rehabilitation and sports medicine of RMAPO, and was drawn up in accordance with the orders of the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Education of the Russian Federation. The programme is aimed at doctors of medical institutions using methods and techniques of traditional medicine.[2]

In 2006 two Ayurvedic clinics that are still active today were opened in Moscow: “Atreya”, founded by Noushad Ali Tachaparamban, Doctor of Ayurveda and Doctor of Medicine, and “Kerala”, founded by Dr. Unnikrishnan Thacharakkal. Since 2014 the “Kerala” clinic has been headed by Mohammedali P. K. (Doctor of Medicine). At present, over 30 Ayurvedic practitioners work at each clinic (doctors and massage therapists). Since they first opened, the clinics have provided medical assistance to thousands of patients.

In 2007 Ragozin B. V. became the first Russian citizen to have been awarded with a BAMS, Bachelor of Ayurvedic medicine and surgery degree at Gujarat Ayurved University (Jamnagar, India). He has also completed the BNYT (Bachelor of Naturopathy and Yoga Therapy) yoga therapy course and was awarded with a Doctor of Medicine in Alternative Medicines M.D. (A.M.) degree of the Indian Board of Alternative Medicines in Calcutta, India.

From 2009 to 2012 Ragozin B. V. has taught a course called “Ayurvedic medicine” at the Department of further professional education at the Faculty of Medicine of the People’s Friendship University of Russia (PFUR) comprising 144 and 504 hours. The course has been completed by over 150 people.

From 2012 to 2014 Ragozin B. V. has taught a course titled “Developing healthy lifestyle and eating habits (Ayurvedic medicine)” consisting of 144 hours and a course of Ayurvedic massage consisting of 72 hours at the Faculty of medicine of PFUR. Over 150 people have received their degree certificates.

Since January 2013 Ragozin B. V. has been heading the Department of Ayurvedic Medicine at the Institute of Oriental Medicine (IOM) founded as part of PFUR. IOM PFUR is a branch of the People’s Friendship University of Russia. In the university, apart from the Department of Ayurveda, there are also the Departments of Chinese and Tibetan medicine, phytotherapy and rehabilitation of children and teenagers.

By the time IOM was founded, the Department of Phytotherapy at PFUR was in existence for 12 years. The opening of IOM has spurred a more active co-operation between Russia and India in the field of studying various herbs and their properties. Faculty members work together with a range of Indian pharmaceutical companies, such as “Himalaya Drug Co”, “Indian spices”, “Lupin Limited” etc. During this period, clinical trials of such products as SoftovacBrahmiOne be etc. have been conducted.[7]

Ragozin B. V. continuously conducts research in the field of yoga and Ayurveda, and has been regularly reporting his findings.[8,9,10,11,12,13]

In 2013, ARIA held a 15-day seminar on “The fundamental principles of Ayurveda”. It was attended by Professors of Ayurveda from India K. V. Jayadevan and M. V. Vinodkumar. Also, 12 physicians received an Indian certificate of having completed the course called “The use of Ayurveda in psychology. The concept of the mind – the psychosomatic aspect” taught by Professors of Ayurveda M. P. Esvara Sharma, K. V. T. Dilipkumar and S. Gopakumar.

In April 2013 Moscow hosted the first All–Russian Congress of Ayurveda with the support of the Healthcare Committee of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, the Embassy of India in Russia, the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy (AYUSH), the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India and the Department of Ayurveda of the government of the state of Maharashtra. Dr. Agnivesh K. R., Dr. Varier P. M., Dr. Jina N. J., Dr. Dilipkumar K. V. T., Dr. Manojkumar A. K., Dr. M. P. Eswara Sharma, Dr. S. Gopakumar, Dr. Mohammed, Dr. Salprakasan, Dr. Srivats N. V., Dr. Ragozin B. V., Prof. Subotyalov M. A. etc. took part in the congress.

In April 2015 the second All-Russian Congress of Ayurveda took place. It was supported by the Healthcare Committee of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, the Embassy of India in Russia and the Ministry of AYUSH as well as the Department of Ayurveda of the government of the state of Maharashtra. The Ambassador of India to the Russian Federation P. S. Raghavan addressed the participants at the opening ceremony. He emphasised the importance of the role played by the organisers of the congress – IOM PFUR and ARIA – in the development of Ayurveda in Russia and also spoke about the plans of the government of India to further develop Ayurveda in Russia. In particular, he announced the creation of the AYUSH Information Department at the Consulate of India in Moscow. During the congress, Indian specialists announced plans for its future activities that include: Lectures on Ayurveda, a scholarship programme for Russian students and doctors, plans to establish departments of Ayurveda in various higher education institutions, joint research projects etc.

Ayurveda practitioners from IOM PFUR and ARIA also took part in the XXII Russian National Congress titled “Man and medicine” held in Moscow in 2015 on par with representatives of conventional medicine and of the Russian pharmaceutical market.

In 2014, a Council on traditional/complementary medicine was established as part of the State Duma Committee on Healthcare, uniting experts in Chinese, Tibetan and Ayurvedic medicine. The Council is in the process of preparing an amendment to the Federal Law No. 323-FZ regarding articles on traditional complementary medicine, introduction of new professional qualifications, including Ayurvedic, and the regulation of drug registration in these areas.[1]

July 1, 2015 saw the introduction of a new National Classification of Occupations (NOC): OK 010 – 2014 (ISCO-08), which formally regulates activities in the field of Ayurvedic medicine and officially recognises such terms as “Ayurvedic medicine”, “doctor of Ayurvedic medicine”, “specialist in Ayurvedic medicine” and so forth.


An important contribution to the translation of Ayurveda–related texts into Russian and the formation of basic Ayurvedic terminology was made by the “Sattva” publishing house that has published a number of translated works by prominent Western and Indian authors. Among them are such books as “Ayurvedic Healing” and “Ayurveda and the Mind: The Healing of Consciousness” by David Frawley, “Ayurvedic cooking for self-healing”, “Secrets of the Pulse: The Ancient Art of Ayurvedic Pulse Diagnosis”, “The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies” and “The Yoga of Herbs: An Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine” by Vasant Lad as well as “Hidden Secret of Ayurveda”, “Prakriti: Your Ayurvedic Constitution”, “Ayurveda: Life, Health, and Longevity” by Robert Svoboda and many others.

With a shortage of translated texts and lack of work with Ayurvedic information sources, the Russian-language basic terminology in Ayurvedic medicine began to be formed. Prof. M. A. Subotyalov has published a large number of studies for the Russian-speaking audience on the history of Ayurveda, its sources, characteristics, methods and basic concepts. Numerous articles and monographs have also been published. A monograph titled “Ayurveda: Sources and characteristics” (Subotyalov M. A., Druzhinin V. Y.)[14] became the first major textbook on the history and methodology of Ayurveda for Russian-speaking students.

There is also a terminology research by the associate professor at Moscow State University Bogatyryova I. I. exploring the vocabulary in ancient Indian medical treatises.[15]

Overall, despite a large number of popular articles and literature, high-quality translations of fundamental medical treatises of Ayurveda from Sanskrit into Russian are few and far between. It is an area of study that could greatly benefit from more research efforts.[14]


The Russian system of registration of medicines doesn’t single out products used in traditional or Ayurvedic medicine. That is the reason that a large number of Ayurvedic medicines which are already well established on the Russian market is not taken into account. The Russian healthcare system has long been using such Ayurvedic medicines as Liv52Cistone and Speman by Himalaya; LinkusVeronaBonjigarand Insti by Herbion; One be and Softovac by Lupin Limited; Travisil cough syrup, lozenges and ointment by Plethico Pharmaceuticals Ltd; Dr. Mom cough syrup, ointment and lozenges, and a number of other medicines and dietary supplements. The effectiveness and relevance of Ayurvedic methods is indirectly proven by the steady increase in sales of these products, on average by 25% every year.

A number of biologically active dietary supplements have been developed using the recipes of Ayurvedic medicine, such as Cyavanaprāśa, Triphalā Guggulu, Yogarāja Guggulu etc. Various oils have been created based on Ayurvedic recipes and are now being used by those seeking to maintain good health as well as for hygienic and cosmetic purposes.

Between 1998 and the early 2000s a company called Ayurveda plus was present on the Russian market. It registered a number of Ayurvedic products in Russia, including RevmatogelTriphalā GugguluArjunaYogaraja Guggulu etc. Ayurveda plus imported products by such major manufacturers as Dabur India Limited, Shahnaz Herbals and Bioveda Research Laboratories.

In 2000 – 2002 Ayurveda Plus conducted more than 30 clinical trials confirming the efficiency and safety of the use of Ayurvedic medicines in various areas (surgery, psychiatry, gynaecology, gerontology etc). In the early 2000s the company together with St. Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy provided training for doctors and practitioners of Ayurveda in order to improve their skills. It also held four international conferences on Ayurvedic medicine. In cooperation with the Academy of Medical and Social Management it has also organised the first international conference called “Eastern and Western medicine – real help”.

Since March 2010 a company called TRADO has been presenting herbal medicinal products and food supplements for various body systems based on Ayurvedic principles manufactured by Bliss Ayurveda to the Russian market.

Since 2013 ProSvet, the company headed by Ragozin B. V. has been active in the field of Ayurveda and has registered a whole range of classic Ayurvedic products. Medicines and supplements made in India are being registered in Russia under Russian names, mostly as biologically active dietary supplements. Among the classic products produced by the company offered in the form of tablets are Nidrodaya rasa (Water-surface), Hingvādi vaṇi (Breath of the Universe), Balya yoga (Living warmth), Chandraprabhā vaṭi(Moonlight), Hṛdayanava rasa (Ray of light), Virecana yoga (Enlightenment), Amṛtāriṣta (Five elements), Brāhmī vaṭi (Equilibrium), Ārogyavardhinī vaṭi (Rainbow), Śvāsahara yoga (Sunrise), Madhumeha hara vaṭi (Power of light), Kañcanāra guggulu (Harmony), Agni vardhaka vaṭi (Sunlight) etc.

Some supplements are produced for ProSvet in the form of kvāthas or herbal decoctions. The following formulas are available in Russia: Madhumehahara (Bio-balance), Brāhmī rasāyana (Harmony), Vāsāriṣṭa(Winter tea), Medohara guggulu (Slimness), Medohara yoga (Slimness plus), Triphalā kvātha (Triphala tea), Mahāmañjiṣṭhādi kvātha (Tsar tea) etc.

A wide range of Ayurvedic oils has been registered by “ProSvet”, including ĀmlaAnuAśvagandhāBalā AśvagandhāBrāhmīVakaDaśamūla, Mahānārāyaṇa, KoṭṭaṃcukkādiPiṇḍa, Slimness, Triphalā etc.

Years of use of Ayurvedic products in Russia have demonstrated that Ayurvedic herbal medicines are well tolerated by patients, are efficient, have no side effects except in cases of individual intolerance. However, it is also clear that Russia still lacks Ayurvedic remedies and a large amount of work is required in the field of their registration and description as well as in the area of research and teaching.


There are about a thousand Spa-centers in Russia and roughly half of them offer services based on Ayurvedic techniques (different types of Ayurvedic massage, herbal steam baths etc.). Russian doctors are also eager to use some of the Ayurvedic preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitation methods and medicines in their medical practice, and to refer their patients to registered Ayurvedic centers in order to achieve better results. Russian patients, adults and children alike, have a positive attitude towards and a good response to Ayurvedic methods and techniques that have proven to be successful both as complementary and as alternative treatment.[1]

The Russians are increasingly turning to Ayurvedic practitioners and their methods for treatment of chronic diseases and rehabilitation after serious illnesses, although less so for prevention and health maintenance. There has been a large increase in the public interest in Ayurvedic treatments. While the number of those who turned to Ayurvedic methods and techniques in 1995 was some 2,000 people, today this number has reached several thousand, with an approximate annual growth of about 100%.

Every year, up to 10,000 Russian citizens travel to India for treatment and improving their general health – and that is to the state of Kerala alone.[1]

Numerous medical centers using Ayurvedic methods of diagnosis and treatment keep opening in Russia. Courses are being taught on some branches of Ayurvedic medicine and disease prevention methods. Texts on various aspects of Ayurvedic medicine are regularly published. Academic and research issues regarding the theory and practice of Ayurvedic medicine are widely discussed at all Russian and international congresses and conferences (St. Petersburg, 2004; Krasnoyarsk, 2009; Novosibirsk, 2011 – 2013; Moscow, 2013, 2015; Volgograd, 2013 etc).

(Dr. Boris Ragozin is a practicing Ayurvedic doctor and the Head of the Department of Ayurveda, Institute of Oriental Medicine, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia)


  1. Karilyo-Arkas AH. Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine in the Russian Healthcare System. Legal Aspects. The 1st All-Russian Congress of Ayurveda: Information Materials (Moscow 12-13 April 2013). In: Zilov VG, Dilipkumar KV, Sukhov KV, editors. Monograph. Moscow, Russia: I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University; 2013.
  • Ragozin BV. Popularisation of Ayurveda in Russia and the world and its application as main and complementary therapy in a number of diseases//legal regulation and the prospects for further development of traditional, folk and oriental medicine in the Russian Federation//Round Table of the Committee on Healthcare of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, 20 February, 2014. Digest. Monograph. Moscow, Russia: State Duma of the Russian Federation, Committee on Healthcare; 2014. p. 129
  • Mayskaya SA, Osokina GG, Rzhanytsina RF. The Efficiency of Using Ayurvedic Methods of Treatment of Children with Bronchial Asthma//Traditional Medicine 2000, Digest. Monograph; 2000. p. 429
  • Pampura AN. Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The Benchmarks (1927–2012). Moscow Research Institute of Paediatrics and Paediatric Surgery Turns 85. In: Tsaregorodtsev AD, Dlyn VV, Mizernitsky YL, editors. Monograph. Moscow, Russia: Press Art; 2012. p. 482.
  • Vetrov II, Sorokina YV. Basic principles of Ayurvedic phytotherapy. St. Petersburg: Dhanvantari Ayurveda Center, LLC; 2012. p. 847
  • Vetrov II, Kuzmenko AV. Basic principles of Ayurvedic medicine. History and metaphysics. St. Petersburg: Svyatoslav; 2003. p. 352.
  • Korsun EV, Korsun VF, Ragozin BV. On Historic Ties between Russia and India in the Field of Phytotherapy//Information Materials of the 2nd All-Russian Congress of Ayurveda. Monograph; 2015. p. 66-7.
  • Ragozin BV. Comparative characteristics of external respiratory function in yoga practitioners under the influence of Ayurvedic Abhyanga massage (oil massage)//Information Materials of the 1st All-Russian Ayurveda Congress (12-13 April, 2013). In: Zilov VG, Dilipkumar KV, Sukhov KV, editors. Monograph. Moscow, Russia: I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University; 2013. p. 116
  • Ragozin BV. Ayurvedic Massage Techniques and Their Effect on the Body//Festival of Health, Academic and Research Conference: Digest. In: Tomkevich MS, Sukhov KV, Yegorov VV, editors. Monograph. Moscow, Russia: Russian Association of Traditional Medicine; 2013. p. 127
  1. Ragozin BV, Kutenev AV, Dilipkumar KV. Patanjali Yoga: Guidelines for Practicing Therapeutic Physical Activity According to Patanjali Yoga System. Moscow: PFUR; 2015. p. 67.
  1. Ragozin BV. Taste of life: The healing properties of herbs and fruits. Monograph. Moscow: Filosofskaya Kniga; 2009. p. 400.
  1. Ragozin BV, Adylbaeva AS. Ayurvedic Medicine: Guidelines. Moscow: PFUR; 2015. p. 83. 
  1. Ragozin BV. Health formula: The healing properties of herbs. Monograph. Moscow, Russia: Filosofskaya Kniga; 2009. p. 240.
  1. Subotyalov MA, Druzhinin VY. Ayurveda: Sources and Characteristics: Monograph. Moscow: Filosofskaya Kniga; 2015. p. 170.
  1. Bogatyryova II. Indo-European Vocabulary in Ancient Indian Medical Treatises//the Orient. Afro-Asian Communities: History and Contemporaneity, Magazine. Moscow, Russia: Russian State Library; 2009. p. 95-101. 

“Ayurveda can make India the world capital for curing chronic ailments – says MIT and Cambridge trained professor”

Ayurveda can make India the world capital for curing chronic ailments – says MIT-Cambridge Professor

Indian sciences can solve modern medical problems because they recognise the difference between the gross physical level, Sthula, and the more subtle, Sukshma, level(s) – Professor Alex Hankey

Aparna M Sridhar

Professor Alex Hankey

Professor Alex Hankey, a British theoretical physicist trained at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Cambridge University, was first introduced to the power of meditation when as a 10 year old child he lost his mother and found solace in repeating a small prayer, not realising then that it became a mantra for him.

When he went to boarding school, he couldn’t cry himself to sleep as he was in a dormitory with 10 other little boys. “So I told a little prayer, ‘God bless Mummy.’ And I repeated it over and over, I didn’t know at that time, like a mantra. It took me to a level, after a year or so, of blissful silence,” he said speaking to CSP at S-VYASA in Bengaluru.

A year later, his older sister gave him a book – The autobiography of St Theresa of Avila – which described in great detail what it called the seven stages of prayer. “I could see I was somewhere near stage 3 and a half. Therefore I got the understanding that if you progressed on this path of meditation you could arrive at great things,” says Alex.

Meditation helps to tap the mind’s potential. Prof Hankey says, “We like to explain the mind as an ocean, manasa sagara if you like. It has got lots of waves on the surface, driven by information coming in through the five senses. Most people only have an access of 5-10 per cent of that. Even Einstein said he had access to only 15 per cent of his mind. So you have this vast body of mind, mental potential which is largely untapped. So how do you meditate? You do various procedures given in Patanjali to let the mind settle down. Then you have the procedure which turns the mind inwards. Patanjali terms it as Pratyahara. Once the mind is turned inwards it is actually attracted automatically to this area of inner bliss. This level of silence is the level of pure Ananda. So our understanding is that when you are given an inner direction and you have the mantra to take you there, dhyana takes place automatically.”

Prof Hankey says that one does not stay long in this state because the nature of this stage is that it energises the mind which releases stress, and once this happens you come out of this phase. “So the whole process is cyclical. You go inwards with the mantra, letting go and the system gets energised with Shakti. It worked like a dream for me. It got rid of the stress that I had been carrying for years. I didn’t need asprins.”

Deeply interested in Vedanta, Yoga, and Ayurveda, Prof Alex has played a vital role in setting up Maharishi University of Management and later on taught their first undergraduate course in Philosophy of Science. It was while studying at the MIT that he learned of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Transcendental Meditation technique (TM). He appreciated the technique so much that he became a teacher of the technique immediately on graduating from M.I.T., during the year that he spent at Stanford.

Speaking about meditation and its ability to take one to higher states of consciousness, Professor Hankey quotes his colleague at TM who identified three types of meditation. “One is called Focussed Attention (Volunteering of attention on a chosen subject), and that produces a certain kind of brain waves of high frequency 30-40 cycles per second (gama waves in front of the head). Another is called Open Monitoring Technique (nonreactive monitoring of the content of experience from moment to moment) which produces Theta waves all along the midline. Then the third is called Automatic Self-Transcending Systems (transcends the steps of the meditation practice leading to pure consciousness). When you reach the transcendental phase you experience inner silence and bliss and the effect of being in that state completely transforms the pattern of your physiological functioning. Anxiety goes away, depression, much more slowly, is eased. The mind enters a state which is called Alpha. The alpha starts classically at the back of the head and then spreads all over cortex and all the main lobes of the brain are involved. We got these results very very clearly.”

Professor Hankey says that this was an area of great interest in the early 1970s. A French neurophysiologist at TM started researching the deeper aspects of meditation and got very good results. “In 1978, the Frenchman set up a laboratory in the UK and we asked the best researcher in EEG in the UK, John C Shaw to evaluate the research. When we told him we see frontal alpha, he said ‘You see what’.”

The TM team told John Shaw that they saw the alpha waves start at the back of the head and then spread forward and eventually become coherent when people get more experienced at meditation and that they saw it in all the participants.

“Even in early meditators you see this signal which is characteristic of inner peace starting in the back and becoming global on both hemispheres. When I said to him we see alpha frequency waves in the front of the head he said that he had never seen that in his life. He said he wouldn’t call that alpha if he saw it from the front of the head because alpha waves are seen only at the back of the head. So it’s very real, it is completely reliable, we see it completely reliably, and it’s apparently unique. When you ask yourself what is it that is happening you are putting your mind in a state which is fully awake in itself. But there is no informational content, there are no thoughts, there are no emotions, and there may be a feeling of bliss. It is basically what I call a state which is ‘empty’. There is no information content but you are not asleep. Some people say, rather wittily, it is rather like falling awake. It is reliable and for various reasons it is automatic.”

Prof Alex spent 30 years teaching TM and the Vedic Sciences in different countries. He returned to research in 2002, and came to Bangalore in 2007, where he met S-VYASA Vice-Chancellor, Dr HR Nagendra within two months of arriving. He joined the university five months later. His current work at S-VYASA relates to applying a combination of philosophical arguments and knowledge of Vedic sciences to solve problems in modern science, and thereby refining the foundations of physics, biology, and information theory.


Comparing Indian sciences to Western practices, Prof Hankey says that Indian traditional sciences depend on the well-defined process of cognition from the Yogic state of Ritam Bhara Pragya described at the end of Patanjali Yoga Sutras Pada I. “When the applied Vedic sciences such as Ayurveda, Dhanurveda, Gandharva Veda, Sthapatya Veda, Shiksha, Vyakarana, Jyotisha, Nyaya, Samkhya, and Yoga are considered, the feedback of empirical success into the structure of knowledge and teaching are very much in evidence, also in the Arts such as Natya Shastra, Painting or Sculpture, to name but a few.”

Prof Hankey says Indian sciences can solve modern problems because “they recognise the difference between the gross physical level, Sthula, and the more subtle, Sukshma, level(s). The western sciences have almost no idea of the existence of the latter, and tend to deny evidence for it when data indicating their existence is brought up. Great scientists like Rupert Sheldrake in the UK report highly negative treatment at the hands of senior scientists who are convinced that they themselves know best – when they don’t. The power of the Sukshma levels can explain all the great results reported in ancient Indian sciences.” Prof Hankey says he has developed an authentic and powerful theory of how the Sukshma fits into the physical world.

And that theory is rooted in Ayurveda which he says has the ability to assess patients’ pathologies at a Sukshma level. His student Dr Purnima Datey in Bhopal has demonstrated cures for several chronic diseases using methods of the AYUSH systems of medicine. “Her system of Rasahara can make India a world capital for curing Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Our work shows that failing to follow any principle of Ayurveda Ahara-Vihara constitutes a risk factor for a corresponding pathology – also that Yoga practice systematically reduces complications of several pathologies.” 

Prof Hankey says that coming from a family of great Vaidyas, Dr Poornima grew up with Ayurveda in her “blood and bones”. Describing her ability as being intuitive, he credits her with his greatest discovery in Ayurveda and Yoga. For instance, the basis of most scientific research done on diabetic drugs is to observe how much of a shift is produced in bio-chemical markers during post-prandial or fasting blood sugar. Ayurveda allows one to have a very different strategy on how drug intervention works.

Dr Poornima found that Ayurveda normalises the variants, bringing them back to their normal range. “For example if you give one of these drugs to someone with normal blood sugar it doesn’t change. But if you give it someone who is diabetic, it will reduce their blood sugar.”

While mainstream research would take an experimental group of 50 people with different values of blood sugar, and compress the whole distribution to study shifts from the mean, the Ayurvedic approach of Dr Poornima and Alex insists it is more important not to look at the shift in mean and instead look at the “shift in distribution of variants or standard deviation. If you look at the width of the distribution you find that you get extraordinary results, much more significant than if you say, how much the shift from the mean it is. This is entirely due to her research. We were able to frame her qualitative research into quantitative terms. We have verified this for yoga interventions in many different studies.” 

Alex says that Vedic Yajnas and Yagas also act at a subtle level and can achieve goals that would otherwise be unattainable. “From the simplest like Agni Hotra or Graha Shanti, which can greatly protect the individual and solve personal problems, through Yagyas like Parjanya Yagya that can bring rain to drought stricken areas, and on to the Vedic Civilisation’s great performances such as the Maha Soma Yagas, which can create harmony and peace throughout a nation, and the Rudra Abhishek’s which can create a Kavach for an entire nation (Ati-Rudra Abhishek) or resolve major world crises, such as its performance in 1944 by the Shankaracharya of Jyotir Math in order to bring World War II to a timely conclusion.”


Indic knowledge systems including Indic technology, Vedic Physics, Ayurveda, Yoga can become mainstream, says Prof Hankey, by establishing well-respected empirical validation of scientific conjectures derived from them.

“Yoga has been thoroughly validated, and the numbers of Randomized Controlled Trials conducted at such prestigious institutions as Harvard University, M.D. Anderson in Houston, Texas, and NIMHANS in Bengaluru (not to speak of S-VYASA) is steadily increasing. Similarly the number of case studies and randomized controlled trials of Ayurveda is steadily increasing. There is now a national move in India to promote AYUSH integrative medicine More work on foundations of Yoga is needed; particularly its ability to produce higher states of consciousness like those intimated in the second half of Mandukhyopanishad (vs. 6 to end) verifying the principles enunciated in Ishopanishad, Yoga Sutras etc. Decisive work has been carried out on the Sukshma Sharira, verifying such statements as Padmasana being the most effective means to energize the subtle body (its verification led to one of my Phd students being named Valedictorian of his graduating class).”

In the field of Ayurveda, Prof Hankey says South Indian cuisine with its Sambhar and Rasam emphasises replacement of mineral losses due to Swedana. “Both systems use the fundamental masalas including Haridra, Ginger, Dhanya and Black Pepper, that reduce cancer, especially in the GIT (Haridra), enhance digestion (Ginger and Dhanya) and absorption (Black Pepper). The popularisation of various Indian curry dishes, and modes of cooking such as Tandoori, around the world, does much to enhance awareness around the world of India’s culture, both historic and contemporary.”

Prof Hankey frequently catches up with his colleague from Cambridge and MIT, Nobel laureate Brian David Josephson, also a physicist and they offer each other advice and opinions on their respective programs of research and sometimes attempt collaboration. Prof Hankey’s work is well known with other members of Trinity College, and his research results in Ayurveda and Yoga has been acknowledged by Master of the College, Sir Greg Winter, the recent recipient of the last Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine

Brett Lee Bats for Music Therapy

Former Australian fast bowler Bret Lee is known to cricket lovers as one of the best pace bowlers in the last century, consistently bowling over 155 km/hr. After his retirement from cricket, he has launched Mewsic, which offers music therapy, to underprivileged children and those suffering from cancer.  In an email interview, he speaks about music and children.

Mewsic was kick started by former Australian fast bowler Brett Lee in India in 2011. The Mewsic Therapy Programme was launched along with St Jude’s India Childcare Centres in 2013 in an aim to use music therapy as a complimentary therapy to support children, and their families, who are struggling with cancer.

What does music mean to you both personally and in terms of its power to enhance the lives of children?

My family and I grew up on music so it’s a very important part of who I am. It’s been a part of my life since I was a little kid and definitely something that brought my family together. For children, music can provide an opportunity to express themselves while still teaching important lessons like the importance of practice.

Please could you tell us about your music interests and skills?

A lot of people say this but I really do love all types of music. Personally I play the guitar and piano. I’ve been part of a band, which is a lot of fun because it brings in the element of being in a team, like cricket.

Do you believe music can help children with disabilities and is this opinion based on research or is it your own experience with music?

I’m a firm believer that music can definitely help children with disabilities and other conditions, and there is a great deal of research out there that validates this belief. Our program with St Judes helps children who have been diagnosed with cancer manage anxiety, express themselves emotionally and has even been shown to reduce pain and there are many studies which show the medical benefits of using clinical music therapy on cancer patients.

How much time and mind space do you devote on your music therapy project?

I try to devote as much time as possible. Whenever I am in India I make sure to catch up with the amazing team that helps me put the program into action as well as the beautiful children who are part of the programs. To be able to see the difference that music has made in their lives is inspiring.  And in Australia I often speak at events to raise funds to support and create awareness about our work in India.

How did your love for music translate into compassion Indian children?

I knew from my visits to India throughout my cricket career that it was a country that shared a lot of my passions. The love of cricket obviously, but also a great musical culture. I decided that I wanted to try and use my profile as a cricketer and love of music together to try and help children.

What kind of resources does one need for a project like this? How did you manage to garner funds and resources?

I guess that the main resources that we need on an ongoing basis are donations to keep our programs running.  We need people to ‘sponsor’ the music tuition of our Mewsic Stars, and to help us fund our Music Therapy Program at St Judes.

But we are also looking for other help – donation of musical instruments so that we can give the joy of music to more children, and also opportunities for our Mewsic Stars to perform.  We have formed a band with our students in Dharavi who have become very good and love to get on stage to a live audience and showcase their talents.

We would also appeal to the music and Bollywood industries to provide opportunities for our kids to have musical ‘experiences’ ie see a live studio recording, be in the audience of a music TV Show, have a one off Masterclass session with a famous musician.

What is more satisfying bowling a juicy yorker and getting Sachin bowled or cheering children up with one of your songs?

That’s a very tough question! I think I would really want both because I couldn’t pick between them.

Is it possible to have two personas – one aggressive on the field and the other empathetic and compassionate off it? Were you a different person on and off the field?

Yes I think that’s true to some extent. On the field you need to be a total competitor and, especially as a fast bowler, being aggressive is often part of that. But there is no reason to carry that on after the match. A lot of the batsmen that I had my toughest battles with on the field were good friends of mine once the match was over.

Mewsic helps kids with cancer

Mewsic was kick started by former Australian fast bowler Brett Lee in India in 2011. The Mewsic Therapy Programme was launched along with St Jude’s India Childcare Centres in 2013 in an aim to use music therapy as a complimentary therapy to support children, and their families, who are struggling with cancer.

Executive Director and Founder – Innovaid Advisory Services and Chairperson – Udayan, Kolkata, Emily R Menon speaks about the potential, hurdles and great dedication that music therapy entails. She helps run the Mewsic programme in Mumbai.

What is the scope of your work? When was it started, how many centres are there now, how many musicians involved, how many children and families impacted?

Mewsic was kick-started in India by Brett Lee in 2011 and our initial focus was to establish Music Centres in slum communities so that children could have the opportunity to learn music – singing, dancing, keyboard, guitar and a variety of other instruments.  It was a very successful program – helping keep children out of mischief, exposing them to positive mentors and introducing them to their first experience of learning music!

We launched our Mewsic Therapy program with St Jude’s India Childcare Centres in 2013 when we trialed the program by placing an Australian Clinical Music Therapist at their Parel Centre for two months to provide music therapy to the 30 children and their families living there.  The program was an instant success and the impact on the children was immediate.  Staff noticed marked changes in the behavior of children – less angst and anger, improved compassion and interpersonal skills as they lived so closely together and better management of emotions. 

Thanks to the support of Rotary, we were able to place a fulltime Clinical Music Therapist at the centre for 12months and began to monitor the impact of the sessions on the children. 

There is a dearth of Clinical Music Therapists around the world, and indeed, here in India, so it has been difficult to get properly trained, accredited professionals to continue our work.  We have continued to use music as a form of therapy by providing weekly music workshops and activities with the 35 children at St Jude’s Parel Centre and it has become an integral part of the weekly life of the centre – particularly as children undertake their music therapy, away from school, friends and their homes.  It is easy for them to get bored and feel frustrated.

St Jude’s has three centres in Mumbai (Parel, Kharghar and Cotton Green) and to date we have only been able to supply music therapy to children at the Parel Centre.

Sound Space currently provides weekly music as therapy sessions to children in Parel and Kharghar, and we have just launched Clinical Music Therapy to our children in Cotton Green.

We were fortunate to find an experienced and skilled Indian Clinical Music Therapist, Astha Luthra, who we recently employed to work full time at the new St Jude’s Cotton Green Centre which will be home to 150 children and their parents.  Astha provides both group and individual sessions to children on a weekly basis who staff identify as dealing with particular pain or emotional challenges.  She also dedicates some time to promote Music Therapy as a clinical form of complimentary therapy – talking to doctors, the medical fraternity, students and the media to educate them on the benefits of Music Therapy and how it actually works.

What is your mission? Is there hope and evidence for clinical improvement or does it focus on quality of life parameters?

Our mission is to use music therapy as a complimentary therapy to support children, and their families, who are struggling with cancer.

A growing number of studies suggest that music can aid healing in many ways.  One recent scientific paper from Harvard University showed how music therapy helped stroke patients regain their speech, and other studies have found that music may improve heart and respiratory rates. It also helps to control blood pressure as well as anxiety and pain in cancer and leukaemia patients.

Additionally music therapy is very good at helping patients manage pain, which is traditionally managed through the administration of drugs. Research has shown that those who utilize Music Therapy have a decrease in the amount of drugs administered, due to higher tolerance and pain threshold ability.  Music Therapy is also found to play a key role in helping patients bodies become more receptive to treatment (ie chemotherapy) as it helps to relax patients, ease tension and fear – all of which have dramatic physiological impacts on the body prior to treatment.  Music is also key in stabilizing patients both physically and emotionally in this regard which reduces the pressure on hospital and center staff and promotes overall healing among patients.

What is the spectrum of health issues you have dealt with and with which

At Mewsic we focus primarily on children suffering from Cancer, however we have also invested, in the past, in the establishment of a Music Therapy Academy, operated by The Music Therapy Trust in Delhi, to train Indians in a Post Graduate Diploma in Clinical Music Therapy.  We believe that there is a need for more Music Therapists in India who can use this powerful form of therapy to help people suffering a range of health problems.

While no Indian musician would question the emotional impact of music on listeners, few believe in its healing powers. Does your experience prove otherwise?

Once again, Clinical Music Therapy is so much more than just ‘listening to music’.  And yes, very few people in India are aware of the healing benefits provided through Clinical Music Therapy – which is what we practice at Mewsic and St Judes.  There are many musicians who claim to do ‘music therapy’, however there is no regulatory body (as there is in other countries) in India to regulate the delivery of the therapy.

Whilst there is often an initial skepticism among some patients, parents, even doctors, once they read and learn about the research studies and the results that have been achieved around the world, they are convinced that there is something very scientific about the therapy and the results it achieves.

A growing number of studies suggest that music can aid healing in many ways.  One recent scientific paper from Harvard University showed how music therapy helped stroke patients regain their speech, and other studies have found that music may improve heart and respiratory rates. It also helps to control blood pressure as well as anxiety and pain in cancer and leukaemia patients.

In fact we have been approached by a number of hospitals both within Mumbai and outside, to provide Clinical Music Therapists to work among their patients.  However the dearth of qualified and certified music therapists in India has meant we are unable to provide this service.

A 2007 survey of U.S. health facilities by the Society for the Arts in Healthcare, along with the Joint Commission and Americans for the Arts, found that of the 1,923 facilities, 35% offered some type of music therapy to patients.  Similarly, today in Australia, almost every major children’s hospital in the country houses a Music Therapy Department which delivers a range of services to children to help them better handle treatment, pain, and the emotional trauma of hospitalization and their injury/disease.

This indicates the growing case for support for the inclusion of Music Therapy services and its positive impact on patients.

Are parents and children in India open to music therapy as a viable option of treatment or are they also skeptical?

Yes, once the benefits are explained.  Our primary target market is paediatric cancer patients and in this context, it is a very powerful modality.  Our patients are not only suffering from the disease, but they are also suffering from the emotional impact of being away from their homes (all our patients come from across India), their siblings, their schools.  Their parents are struggling with the financial impacts as they are required to be in Mumbai with their child and cannot earn a living.  So the integration of Music Therapy at our centres really helps them manage their emotions and the variety of issues they are dealing with.

Are the doctors, psychologists and social workers on board with music therapy?

There is a huge need for ‘awareness raising’ on the issue of Clinical Music Therapy and our full time music therapist, will be spending 1 day a week talking to doctors, nursing staff, medical students, NGOs and journalists about the clinical research findings and benefits of the use of Music Therapy. 

Doctors at Tata Memorial Hospital have been happy with the results of the music therapy on the St Jude’s Child Patients, however we have not had therapists work for long periods of time to create any validated research of our own.

What kind of music activity constitutes therapy? Is it individual or group? Also is there a preference for instrumental or vocal music?

  • Music therapy sessions usually last between 30 to 45 minutes
  • The sessions are conducted in groups and individually.
  • Depending on a patient‘s situation, they may have regular therapy for weeks or months
  • The music therapist will make a ‘treatment plan’ related to ‘referral aims’ or goals, for the patient
  • The Music Therapist and patient will use instruments and voice in sessions to improvise music that will support the referral aims and achievement of goals.
  • The Music therapist uses psychological and psychodynamic knowledge to explore the needs of the patient and to develop a therapeutic relationship
  • Patients do not need to be able to play an instrument to be referred to Music Therapy

Does your project involving teaching music too? If yes how is the course structured?

As outlined in the first question, yes, we have been teaching music to children in Dharavi, Govandi, Mankurd, Hyderabad, Lucknow and Jaipur.  Today we provide scholarships to talented, disadvantaged students, to study music (we support any instrument, but currently have scholarships supporting guitar and keyboard).  We hope to grow and expand this program and anyone who would like to sponsor a child for 12 months of music lessons is encouraged to reach out to us.

Australians engaged with India – Dr Valerie Wilson

“We gradually came to understand how special, how unique each of India’s textiles were” – Dr Valerie Wilson

Dr Valerie Wilson and Sue McFall co-founded MOTI in 2001, which sells limited edition clothing, nightwear and homewares made from beautiful Indian textiles in Australia. In the midst of researching and sourcing photos for her forthcoming book – A touch of India, Valerie spoke about her experiences in engaging and working with Indians.

Valerie has familial links to India. Her mother was born and raised in Mumbai, and her grandfather was half Indian and worked as an electrical engineer for the Tatas.  Valerie’s parents met in Bombay when her English father, fighting in Burma during WW2, visited India while on leave. The young couple married in 1945 and moved to Cambridge where her father’s studies had been interrupted by the World War. Valerie was born in Cambridge two years later. She visited her grandparents in Mumbai when she was was 6 years and again, for 6 months, when she was 10. They family lived in Panchgani where her grandparents lived after retirement.

Dr Valerie Wilson
Valerie’s love for India and her desire to know more about her heritage lead her to take a year of Indian Studies as part of her BA and over the years she says she has read many great Indian writers and novels mainly, but also general reading about India.  

It was during her third visit to India, much later, that Valerie was truly smitten. “There is such a lot to see and do. Just being in India, anywhere, is to immerse yourself in a wondrous new world, landscapes, religions, colours, monuments, textiles, people of all sorts!! All the obvious touristy sites are unmissable. But there is so much else besides. It’s fascinating, exasperating, exhausting, addictive!”

Valerie worked as a consultant for many years before plunging into Moti. And a lot of what she learnt in her earlier profession helped her to navigate through India. “In a general way I think that, as a qualitative researcher, I was used to asking questions and always seeking greater understanding. I was used to being self-employed, to working things out for myself. For several years I had worked in marketing research so I had a good understanding of consumer attitudes. And I had a very good partner (Sue McFall) in the enterprise who is a self-employed architect, familiar with design and production processes.”

Initially they were attracted by the cotton from Mangalgiri and even visited the town of Mangalgiri to watch the various processes in action. “We used to order multiple meterages of different colours. We loved it. We usually ordered through an intermediary in Hyderabad or Delhi. We also came to love Maheshwari, Khadi and numerous other fabrics. There are so many!”

While Valerie says they did not have a lot of direct contact with the weaver themselves, their various suppliers taught them a lot about “the differing techniques of weaving and of block-printing so that we gradually came to understand how special, how unique were each of these textiles. And how humbling. That’s what struck me the most. A garment that we might casually throw on has been through so many time-honoured processes, has taken so much time and dedication to produce.” 

She describes an incident with a bangle producer and how they became impatient with a supplier who seemed to be taking a very long time to provide some resin bangles for them. “We hadn’t realized that they were being painstakingly carved by hand and he could only do two a day. 

So we often had reality-checks of this sort and learned patience and humility!”

Having said that, there were issues with quality and consistency as is wont to happen in handmade goods. “Our business liked the fact that handmade goods are a bit inconsistent because that is what lends character, what differentiates hand-made goods from factory or machine-processed goods. Our customers were often surprised to learn that every thread of fabric in a garment we sold had been woven in by hand. We had to remind them, to educate them. Especially as we often used plain colours and a lot of plain black! (I’m afraid people in Melbourne like to wear black.) So it was even more surprising in a plain fabric to realise each thread was hand woven in. But they were also pleasantly surprised by how hard-wearing such fabrics can also be. However the idiosyncrasies of hand weaving meant that we didn’t ever consider wholesaling our garments. We needed it to be a personal business, where we could tell the stories, educate our customers. Then they could see, as we did, that the idiosyncrasies were charming! (Sometimes however, idiosyncrasies were simply faults and were less charming!)”

Once they ordered 200 metres of black silk-cotton and when it arrived in Melbourne it was grey. “Not even dark grey, but a mid-grey. When we protested we were told “it’s the Indian black”!!

Valerie says that Indians and Australians share a similar sense of humour, and often humour helps to deal with situations. “We see the funny side in things that others may perceive as problems. We enjoy good-natured banter. We can all use humour to defuse difficulties. And there are quite a lot of difficulties for foreigners trying to do business in India: we have to learn to deal with heat, dirt, noise, disease (tummy bugs), indirect conversations (e.g. people not wanting to say ‘no, we can’t do that for you’), power shortages, lengthy delays in Indian traffic, lengthy delays receiving ordered goods….and more! But it’s worth the effort: the rewards are both tangible and intangible, the pleasures, the gradual understanding, the insights, the friendships…”

And finally, one asks Valerie about Cricket. Valerie says that when people would ask them where they were from, while walking in a market, and when they replied Australia, it would inevitably lead to long conversations about cricket. “Luckily I know a bit about cricket via my three children who used to play. But sometimes we were tired and couldn’t cope with cricket-talk so when people asked where we were from we would reply ‘Yugoslavia’. Silence. (But a bit mean of us!!)”

In 2016 twin sisters, Marilyn and Christine Shady took over the running of MOTI. But Valerie says she and Sue continue the tradition of MOTI with their love of India.  

Australians engaged with India – The Evolving Art of Konnakkol

The art of Konnakkol, where percussionists vocalise rhythmic syllables, is fading in Carnatic music – even as Western musicians are taking to it with gusto for everything from learning rhythm to mastering and controlling complex rhythmic structures in playing their own instruments.

For over 20 years Australian vocalist Lisa Young has been dedicated to konnakkol artistry.  As a jazz singer who loves rhythmic expression, she has integrated konnakkol into her contemporary vocal style and compositions. A long time student of gurus Kaaraikkudi Mani (Chennai) and M. Ravichandhira (Melbourne), Lisa shares with us a unique take on what she believes to be a highly creative, and continually evolving art form..

Dr Lisa Young

Adjunct Research Associate at Monash University, Australia, a Jazz singer and a disciple of Karaikudi Mani Iyer, says Konnakkol has a broad range of practical and creative functions for musicians of any genre. “Konnakkol is maybe our default system for rhythmic comprehension and our intuitive starting point for composition and improvisation. This wonderful rhythmic language provides a systematic approach to rhythmic materials, generally absent in Western music pedagogy. It provides a conceptual framework for metred numerical calculations, improvisation, composition, rhythmic comprehension and analysis, transference of musical ideas, and expression of musical pulse,” says Young

Many of her compositions and collaborative works are performed by vocal group Coco’s Lunch, and her jazz/world music group Lisa Young Quartet.  She also has a keen interest in choral music, composing works that combine Western and Carnatic techniques, which are performed by a variety of choirs worldwide.

Lisa began studying konnakkol in Melbourne in 1994 with mridangist M. Ravichandhira and through him became a student of Guru Kaaraikkudi Mani, founder of the Sruthi Laya Kendra School in Chennai.  From 1997 to the present day she has visited India for intensive study periods with Mani, and been “inspired by this sophisticated, expressive, rhythmic vocal language and its complex systems of musical metreand subdivision.” 

In Lisa’s Own Words:

“Over many years I have integrated konnakkol language and Carnatic techniques in my creative practice, for example; laya ratna akin to metric modulation and yati a rhythmic calculation designed to represent geometric shape.  I often combine Western and Carnatic concepts, including ragaand solkattu, as the foundation for melodic composition and improvisation.  I continue tocompose original konnakkol structures and also to integrate and adapt those composed by Mani, in a variety of ensemble settings.  Over time, the solkattu language has become an integral part of my vocal performance, providing an additional rhythmic-based language that augments the melodic jazz-vocal ‘scat’ language, the wordless lingual syllables used for vocal improvising in the jazz tradition. 

Whilst musicians use konnakkol initially to learn the Carnatic rhythmic system and materials, konnakkol is itself a language.  Once a musician has grasped the fullness of this language including the groupings, the phrases, structures and techniques of numerical calculation, metric modulation, expansion and reduction, it becomes the backbone of one’s deep rhythmic knowing and conceptualising.  The artists’ thoughts are regularly occupied by solkattu phrases and structures.  Konnakkol is their default system for rhythmic comprehension and their intuitive starting point for composition and improvisation.

Do you incorporate a lot of Indian sounds in your playing and vice versa do you find Indian musicians learning from you?

It’s not just about sounds.  It is about the whole musical system.  Once you learn the Indian way of developing the rhythmic timeline then your approach to rhythm is expanded exponentially. There is so much to help expand your musical horizons.  Of course, this works both ways.  Composing and improvisation have very different approaches as you travel across the world.  Sharing in each other’s musical systems is one of the most magical things you can imagine.  There are so many treasure troves uncovered when you explore each other’s musical worlds.  Most of the Indian musicians I have worked with are as excited to explore this as me.

In Lisa’s Own Words:

“Over many years I have integrated konnakkol language and Carnatic techniques in my creative practice, for example; laya ratna akin to metric modulation and yati a rhythmic calculation designed to represent geometric shape.  I often combine Western and Carnatic concepts, including ragaand solkattu, as the foundation for melodic composition and improvisation.  I continue tocompose original konnakkol structures and also to integrate and adapt those composed by Mani, in a variety of ensemble settings.  Over time, the solkattu language has become an integral part of my vocal performance, providing an additional rhythmic-based language that augments the melodic jazz-vocal ‘scat’ language, the wordless lingual syllables used for vocal improvising in the jazz tradition. 

Whilst musicians use konnakkol initially to learn the Carnatic rhythmic system and materials, konnakkol is itself a language.  Once a musician has grasped the fullness of this language including the groupings, the phrases, structures and techniques of numerical calculation, metric modulation, expansion and reduction, it becomes the backbone of one’s deep rhythmic knowing and conceptualising.  The artists’ thoughts are regularly occupied by solkattu phrases and structures.  Konnakkol is their default system for rhythmic comprehension and their intuitive starting point for composition and improvisation.

Eternal and Internal Pulse

Alongside my passion for the expression of this sophisticated vocal percussion language, I have been particularly drawn to the Carnatic music systems of tala and nadai where a breadth of attention is given to detailed rhythmic structures and sub-divisions in a wide variety of odd and even metres or metred cycles.  This detailed systematic approach to rhythmic materials is generally absent in western music pedagogy, and thus my Carnatic studies have influenced and enriched my rhythmic knowledge and expression. In pulse-generated music (as opposed to rubato or alapana sections) there is usually an ongoing eternal pulse outlining the given metre.  This is ‘felt’ or experienced in conjunction with at least one internal pulse layer sub-dividing the beats.  In Indian terms this may be thought of as tala and nadai. The internal pulse (nadai) may be altered in certain sections within a composition, or adjusted spontaneously by the improvisor.  Additionally in the Carnatic system, subtly embedded within the internal pulse, is a third rhythmic layer dictated by sub-groupings the solkattu language itself.  The solkattu language places the beats into groups, usually in 2’s, 3’s and 4’s for example as – tha ka | tha ki da | tha ka thi mi adding an independent layer of rhythmic sub-grouping, integral to understanding the Carnatic system.  Thus a subdivision of 7 or 9 is not simply 7 individual septuplets or 9 nonuplets, as the interior language imposes a distinct rhythmic grouping system

Switching the internal pulse of a given metre is used to great effect in Carnatic music.  The technique of laya ratna, which literally means ‘time’ or ‘speed shifting’ in Tamil, is akin to metric modulation in Western music.  When switching the internal pulse of the metre, the tala (or eternal pulse) remains steady, but the nadai (internal pulse) changes speed.  Proficiency with this technique is an important part of a Carnatic musician’s craftA common laya ratna shifts from a subdivision of 4 to 6 to 8Performing these metricshifts is a fundamental element of the Carnatic tradition; it is a tool, which is used to virtuosic effect in performance.   

In most Western jazz music, the metre or eternal pulse is given as a time signature, for example 6/8 or 4/4.  The internal subdivision – if required – is either written descriptively as, for example: ‘swung quavers’ or ‘straight 16ths’, triplets etc, or described as a musical ‘feel’, such as ‘swing’ or ‘shuffle’.  Of course there are many layers of rhythmic complexity that create a sense rhythmic depth in jazz music, including concepts of metric modulation, polyrhythmic structures, rhythmic feel, and groove.  But within the Carnatic pedagogy there is a fundamental relationship between a musician’s instinctive ability to internally subdivide a given metre, and their ability to explore and interpret rhythmic complexity in performance.  

Significantly, solkattu develops a musician’s rhythmic intuition, which can be easily transferred into any musical situation, aiding comprehension and transference of pre-composed ideas and concepts, and engaging the invention of new music with improvisation and composition.

As a musician’s companion, artists (both Indian and Western) fluent in konnakkol move beyond its original pedagogical role to employ its use as a highly creative tool, in which konnakkol provides a conceptual framework for metred numerical calculations, improvisation, composition, rhythmic comprehension and analysis, transference of musical ideas, and expression of musical pulse. 

Along with timbral and pitch variations in contemporary konnakkol delivery, I explore intoned and pitched konnakkol as a fully integrated vocal and musical expression in a Western contemporary vocal or jazz context, embedding konnakkol and wordless lingual sounds within this format to create a unique ‘vocal sound-bank’ as the basis for my vocal expression.  This style of pitched konnakkol is a distinctive feature of my creative practice.  In this process, my compositions integrate konnakkol language and concepts as melodies, riffs and the language for improvised passages.  My recent works for example The Eternal Pulse, Tha Thin Tha and Other Plans, demonstrate the adaptive and evolving use of konnakkol in contemporary performance practice.  In these works I am applying the tools of both the Carnatic and jazz traditions to create a form of musical expression that is not simply an ‘Eastmeets West’graft.  Rather, these processes are a mode of creativity, which involve an understanding of both musical traditions in the development of a performance language and style.     


As a vocalist embracing two musical cultures, I believe that konnakkol combines an intellectual and intuitive approach to rhythmic comprehension and acts as a faithful companion to my creative musical undertakings.  It is at the foundation of my rhythmic experience and knowledge, assisting my rhythmic analysis and comprehension in both Carnatic and cross-cultural projects.  I enjoy using timbral variations, atypical syllables, applied vocal techniques and personal interpretation in konnakkol recitation, and I hope my creative works that integrate konnakkol demonstrate the way an artists’ aesthetic preferences may influence the evolving adaptations of the konnakkol art form and language.Whilst the role of the solo konnakkol artist may be diminishing in India,certainly many musicians and institutions in the West are investigating and including a core study in konnakkol. I hope that this stunning art form will continue to thrive, evolve and be adapted by both Carnatic and Western musicians.  Again I say, may it be our default system for rhythmic comprehension and our intuitive starting point for composition and improvisation.

श्रुति स्मृति चतुर्दश अष्टादशविद्याः (śruti smṛti caturdaśa aṣṭādaśavidyāḥ)

Centuries before  the founding of the world’s oldest surviving universities – the University of al-Qarawiyyin (founded in ~859 CE) and the University of Bologna (founded in~1088 CE) – it is recorded in Chinese sources that Bhārat’s Nālandā, situated in today’s India, in its heyday had ~10,000 students and ~1,500 teachers, with students visiting from Japan, Korea, China, Central & Southeast Asia!

The lyrics of this single श्रुति स्मृति चतुर्दश अष्टादशविद्याः (śruti smṛti caturdaśa aṣṭādaśavidyāḥ) contain lines from texts Yājñavalkya Smṛti and Viṣṇu Purāṇa which are historical/textual attestations of categories of learning and subjects — parts of systems of Indic knowledge  — that were taught in universities like Nālandā. 

In short, this is hence a tribute to Indic Knowledge Systems caturdaśa aṣṭādaśavidyāḥ ( — which bring together categories/texts as diverse as āyurvedaarthaśāstranāṭyaśāstraaṣṭādhyāyī — that had existed before the founding of today’s oldest surviving universities,  until first, the grotesque physical destruction of these places of learning by invading forces and then systematic marginalisation of these systems of knowledge in the mainstream education system, first by colonising forces and then their Indian (ideological) successors. 

This single, launched on May 13, 2019 at the Center for Soft Power, Chennai, was made more vivid by custom choreography by renowned Bharatanātyam performer and CSP Researcher Ms. Pavithra Srinivasan (


Raag/am: Bairāgi/Revati
Sung by: Shruti and Smruthi Kalyanasundharam
Melody: Megh Kalyanasundaram

LYRICS (Translation by Dr Korada Subrahmanyam)

सरस्वति नमस्तुभ्यं वरदे कामरूपिणि । विद्यारम्भं करिष्यामि सिद्धिर्भवतु मे सदा ॥
O! Sarasvati! you grant boons, you can have your desired form – I offer my namaskara (means: I am inferior to you and you are superior to me) to you. I am going to start my study: let there be success to me always.

श्रुतिस्मृतिपुराणानाम् आलयं करुणालयम् |नमामि भगवत्पादं शङ्करं लोकशङ्करम् ||
I offer namaskara to Bhagavan Sankara, who is an abode of Srutis, Smritis and Puranas, an abode of  kindness and who provides comfort to people (thru Jnanam).

पुराणन्यायमीमांसाधर्मशास्त्राङ्गमिश्रिताः। वेदाः स्थानानि विद्यानां धर्मस्य च चतुर्दश || 
The Four Vedas viz. Rgveda, Yajurveda, Samveda, Atharvaveda, Puranas, Nyaya, Mimamsa, Dharmasastram along  with the six Vedangas, viz Siksha, Vyakaranam, Chandas, Niruktam, Jyotisham, Kalpa: these fourteen are the abodes of Vidya (Jnanam) and Dharma.

आयुर्वेदो धनुर्वेदो गान्धर्व श्चेत्य नुक्रमात् । अर्थशास्त्रं परं तस्मात् विद्याह्यष्टादश स्मृताः || 
Ayurveda, Dhanurveda, Gandharvaveda and Arthasastram, the four Upavedas, coupled with the said fourteen are called eighteen Vidyas.

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥
Aum, Peace, Peace, Peace!

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Handspun and Handwoven

“India is the only country today that has skills of hand spinning. It is the most unique resource in the world today” – Mayank Mansingh Kaul

Against the background of the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi this year – whose call for Khadi led to the Indian freedom movement – Ahalya Matthan of the Registry of Sarees, and designer Mayank Mansingh Kaul – held the third iteration of Meanings and Metaphors in Bangalore. In a free flowing conversation they spoke about handmade textiles, the identities they impart as well as their place in contemporary design.

The sarees displayed at Meanings and Metaphors only hinted at the diversity of textiles that exist in India. A diversity that goes far beyond the textiles themselves.

Ahalya Matthan Director and Founder of the Registry of Sarees, a Research and Study Centre in Bangalore of handspun and handwoven textiles, is trying to create cultural capsules to find commonalities and communicate that using textiles. “I personally feel in India we have nothing in common – not food, not religion, politics, language, geography, music history, etc. And in this diverseness, it is difficult to find common ground except for in our textiles, There is a love for textiles in all of us,” says Ahalya.

Ahalya Matthan is the Director and Founder of the Registry of Sarees, a Research and Study Centre in Bangalore of handspun and handwoven textiles (All Photo Credits: Registry of Sarees)

Take for instance the Bundi saree, which the Registry’s site says is a ‘modern day response to a young nation’s identity’. It merges skill and craft sets from two entirely different regions, Kancheepuram and Rajasthan. The pure cotton saree with the silk borders specially woven using the three-shuttle ‘temple’ technique synonymous with Kancheepuram was combined with the highly skilled block printing technique using blocks developed from inspirations at the Bundi Fort, Rajasthan. They were merged onto the sarees, thereby linking Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. “A rich colour pallet that is appreciated in both states was used to bring forth a similarity of appreciation and culture,” says the Registry.

The Bundi saree, merges skill and craft sets from two entirely different regions, Kancheepuram and Rajasthan

For Mayank Mansingh Kaul, a textile and fashion designer, and Founder-Director of The Design Project India, the most attractive thing is that India is the only country today that has skills of hand spinning. “It is the most unique resource in the world today. Apart from that, the thing that hits people the most about our textiles when they come from outside is that it is so diverse. It is the quality of cotton, the quality of natural dyeing that does not exist elsewhere in the world. It has such an amazing variety of motifs where everything has a meaning. What draws people from outside and within it is endless, but the first thing is the sheer diversity.” With textiles changing even as one moves from one part of Tamil Nadu to another. 

A lot of this fascination is articulated through the stories from foreigners, friends of Mayank. “The Japanese are more attracted to the material quality. They are very interested in the structure, the materiality. Whereas in the West, people are interested in the stories. Today we think of the Kota Doria as being synonymous with Rajasthan, but it was originally the Mysoria Doria. It goes from the Royal Court of Mysore to Kota. I think these are the stories that are very appealing to the West.”

Mayank has researched these stories and his writings talk about the recent history of Indian textiles. “You have to talk about textiles not just as a product but as a confluence of the political and the social. Khadi was political. In the 60s and 70s when everyone wanted to wear imported chiffon, Indira Gandhi started wearing handloom. She even had rules, we believe, that all government offices had to buy only handloom furnishings –curtains and sofa covers and other things. To make that shift when people wanted to look at western references, was something,” says Mayank.

Mayank Mansingh Kaul is a textile and fashion designer, and Founder-Director of The Design Project India

When Ahalya and Mayank thought about collaborating, they found there was a lot of misinformation about textile history. “Suddenly people were selling Hindru sarees. There was never anything called the Hindru saree. Hindru was a fabric woven for shervanis among the Mughal or aristocratic class,” says Mayank.

A graduate of the National Institute of Design, Mayank says it is only in the last 10-12 years there has been an interest in the study of contemporary Indian textile. “NID is one of the oldest design institutions in the world and until my batch in 2001 we were still taught by some of the founders of the NID. NID was formed with international linkages to movements like the Bauhaus (learning by doing rather than the traditional transmission of traditional knowledge) in Europe. So we knew what happened 200 or 300 years back but we had very little understanding of what happened 100 years back or 60 years or post-Independence. I felt those histories were not in books and exhibitions. So over a period of time, my own practice looked at design, fashion and textiles in the modern period and my argument is that we have not sufficiently understood this period.”

Mayank quotes historical inaccuracies, emphasising the need to learn more about our textiles in contemporary times. For instance, the Telia Rumal of Andhra Pradesh was never the saree which it is today. It was a rumal that was exported to the Arab world. “These are more contemporary histories. Another example is the Ikat sarees which people believe have always been made in Ikat in Andhra Pradesh. Whereas it is a much more recent phenomenon. It is only in the 1950s and 60s that the tradition of the Ikat saree emerged. My interest is to look at the more recent history and fill in the gaps through that between the present and the historical.”

Mayank’s previous major exhibition at the Jawahar Kala Kendra was an exhibition on the history of 70 years of Indian textiles since Independence told through 70 textiles using textiles that were both art and fashion.

“Often, we don’t see the story behind these textiles, it stops with buying and wearing them. My efforts are to do non-commercial curated exhibitions. These collections are not about buying, it’s about being aware of the textile, or enjoying the pleasure of looking at it – it’s an educational process.”

At the first exhibition of Meanings and Metaphors at Chirala in Andhra Pradesh, 5000 weavers attended the event. The exhibitions serve as repository of the best work of weavers. In their research Ahalya and Mayank noticed that weavers often sell the best of what they have made. “If they cannot retain the best examples of what they make, how can their future generations replicate that quality? So when you take an exhibition like this they are reminded of the quality that they have made, but that they have not been able to hold on to. In an environment where textiles and fashion are so over articulated, we try to provide non-commercial platforms to view and understand these traditions,” says Mayank.

At the first exhibition of Meanings and Metaphors at Chirala in Andhra Pradesh, 5000 weavers attended the event

Another collection that will be exhibited by them in 2020 – Sarees of India – will feature sarees from the late 19th century to the 1980s.  Whenever the duo gets access to a collection they store it at the Study and Research Centre at the Registry of Sarees and anyone can access it for research or viewing. The center has over 108 variety of fabrics and 108 sarees of which only 51 have been exhibited.

Mayank and Ahalya see textiles as an inheritance that needs to be cherished. Every saree for them has a story as it passes through atleast twenty hands before becoming what it is. At the time when there was a move to remove reservations and subsidies for the handloom sector, Ahalya became a part of the 100 sarees pact. She and her colleagues decided to become proactive and wear more handloom sarees in order to get people to wear handloom and support weavers.

Speaking about identity and the saree, Ahalya says the Registry has seen a lot of interest from expats who are ‘interested to interact with the drape and even to know about the pieces.’ “Expats in cities like Bangalore, Gurugoan, Bombay, not so much traditional hubs like Delhi and Calcutta are adopting the saree to be able to fit into the cultural environment. It gives them an inroad not just into a new ritual or experience like going to a temple or eating from a plaintain leaf, experiences you have as someone coming to a new country, but it also gives them a sense of bonding and community and that I think is very important,” says Ahalya.

Pamela Kaplan, who headed IBM at Bangalore for two years was an American with red hair, and so was very conspicuous among her staff. Ahalya says she started wearing sarees to work every day. “The norm and trend in IBM was western wear and even formals were gowns – Indo Western gowns. And suddenly, she said, in two to three months the culture of the organisation changed. Young women and men started feeling awkward that she was coming in sarees and they started wearing Indian clothes. It is just conditioning.”

“Indians are not Brand oriented but Product Oriented”                               

Mayank did a project last year on 50 years of Ritu Kumar, the brand and the person. Today, Kumar owns a multi-crore company with over 80 stores in India as well as branches Paris, London and New. Mayank is working on a personal memoir of hers, bringing together her notes made over the years. “Ritu says ‘what Chennai wants is fundamentally different from what Ludhiana wants’.”

Mayank says this is not the same as big luxury brands which have over 500 stores around the world with all their shop windows looking the same, and all the products are the same. “We laugh because these stores have outlets in Delhi and other places and in August they have the woollen collection because in the West, winter starts in August. Here we still have four months of summer left. Ritu was also telling us, it is not just about handloom policy, the diversity is so much that even large companies like these who would love to have a standard format, cannot function optimally here. Sizes are different, body types are different from region to region, cultural buying is different.”

In the West, identities come from brands, because they don’t have close family ties, says Mayank. “In India we have so many identities, we have religious identities, geographical identities, cultural identities, you have an identity from your father’s side, an identity from your mother’s side, where you grew up, then your college, your professional environment. In the West you don’t have these identities. So brands give you identities ‘I only buy Gucci or Aesop or Forest Essentials’. In India we go for the product. Only here, we will buy the blouse from one designer and the saree from another,” says Mayank.

He speaks about his great grandmother who was a child widow, and was sent by her father-in-law, to do a PhD in Cambridge and wore only sarees. “From then onwards if you look at the history of women and clothing, somehow the lure of the saree hasn’t gone. There is something about the saree that provides a kind of identity which is fascinating. Even in Indian fashion, fashion designers are always making new versions of the saree. It’s a dress saree or a Chota saree, or a saree with Churidhars. It is something that has consistently been observed to have given Indian women an identity and there is no other equivalent that has given them the same kind of identity.”

 Modernity versus tradition

Traditionally, the weaver in India was the designer, but in the modern context  city-based designers have become the face of our textiles, putting the weaver lower in the ecosystem.

Mayank has expressed his objections to the designer being perceived as the value addition and the weaving and craft as labour. “That is a western referenced idea. We have to remember that design came up in the West in the Post-World War when they had to use machines. Design came up in an environment where you didn’t have crafts people left. In the Indian context unfortunately we have looked at design from these perspectives where the designer is the intermediary. In the traditional systems, there’s a person who designs, person who cuts the cloth and everybody worked together. I have a problem with the designer being the face because in pictures you will see the hands of the craftsman, and the face of the artist and designer. A lot of my curatorial work challenges that. I always show art, design, textiles, craft together.”

Mayank addressed these concerns in his exhibition ‘Fracture: Indian textiles new Conversations.’ While normally the ideas are those of the designer, with the craftspersons producing them, but here they projected the work as collaborations. “So the name of the craftsperson was mentioned alongside the designer. So curatorially, we could provide them that equality. Unless they have social status, they are producing things that someone else is claiming credit for. I think we need to move into a creative era where anyone who is involved in a creative and manufacturing process has equal credit.”

Earlier people would source the sarees from the weaver directly. “Families that would buy from Benaras would go to the weaver’s family directly. There was that contact. Designers have changed that because we have given them the responsibility of training the weavers, giving them new ideas. It’s a two way thing. Weavers are being informed by designers because they are in a different context, cut off from things.”

However, things have improved for the weavers, says Mayank. In the last 5-10 years many of the master weavers have done well for themselves, so much so that their children have gone to design schools.

“In Andhra we visited two Master weavers, and now they don’t sell their best pieces because now they want to keep a creative museum of their own best works. There’s new found pride and there’s financial success. But some would say that no matter how wealthy you are nobody wants to marry a weaver’s son because of the caste and social status implications. It is a very complex situation but I think the first step is to give them a face and a name.”

“Every state needs its own handloom policy”

The diversity in textiles is so huge that it is not possible to have a single marketing strategy for the whole country, believes Mayank.

What may work in Kutch may not work in Orissa. Kutch has been an entrepreneurial community for the last 1000 years and so their crafts are thriving. “The whole world is in Kutch, from Japan to America. But if you take Orissa or Bengal, they are not entrepreneurial communities traditionally. In Sambalpur in Orissa, all the uniforms in colleges and schools are compulsorily handloom. So State government intervention has helped.”

In Kutch, where the problem is not product development or marketing, or design, the government may have to have a different kind of role.  The Government role has to be sensitive to these individual contexts, adds Mayank.

“The role of the government should be to provide an ecology where workers can work with pride and have working conditions that are human.”

The Singer by the River

On the occasion of Thyagaraja’s Birth Anniversary

Author of three books on Saint Thyagaraja and several other books on South Indian singer-saints, Professor William Jackson shares his love for India and her music.

The Singer by the River is a novel about the South Indian singer-saint Tyagaraja (1767-1847). The story of Tyagaraja, growing up in the village of Thiruvaiyaru and becoming the greatest composer of South Indian music is interwoven with the stories of his brother Jalpesh, who is remembered traditionally as a troublemaker and trickster. While Tyagaraja follows his inspiration to find spiritual heights through creating mystical music, his brother gets into trouble time and again, disturbing the plans of his family, and his community, and incurring the wrath of rulers who try to reign and control their fates and the land. The story of the saint and his brother is both poignant and humorous.

By Professor William Jackson

I fell in love with India when I first visited for six months in 1970-71. It was a new beginning for me, I learned so much. I drew pictures of elephants, monkeys, cows, flowers and birds. I met friendly people, saw the ocean and temples, experienced the Indian dawns, storms and sunsets. I wrote poetry and read books like The Yogavasishtha, and The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa, about a Tibetan sage. India gave me a new beginning, a fresh set of principles. Yes, I fell in love with India.

My PhD is from Harvard University, in the Comparative Study of Religions. My special area of focus in that program was Hindu traditions. The story of my path leading up to that degree program is a long and winding one. I grew up in the Catholic tradition in Rock Island, Illinois, in the time of the Latin liturgy. That meant an education in Catholic schools, and serving mass as an altar boy, reciting the Latin responses to the priest, and also singing in a choir. 

“Thyagaraja’s songs have a meditative quality, the sounds put one in a meditative mood, in my experience.”

When my first marriage ended in divorce when I was twenty-two or so, there was no place for me in the Catholic Church, because divorce is forbidden. I went to India to learn from a spiritual teacher, and part of the tradition I followed include bhajans, as well as meditation, and social service.

 That led to many friendships with Indians. One friend, Ram Ramachandran gave me a book by Raghavan and Ramanujachari, “The Heritage of Thyagaraja.” Ram also took me to hear M.S. Subbalakshmi sing in a concert at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. My PhD program was in the Comparative Study of Religion, which is also known as the History of Religions. When it was time (after several years of studying Sanskrit, and courses on Indian Literature and studies of various religious traditions (my favorite were the poems and songs of mystics from around the world) I had to pick a thesis topic; because I knew from my spiritual teacher and from friends that Thyagaraja was considered an authentic voice of bhakti, I chose to study his life and works, to learn all I could about him. I spent 18 months in India doing PhD research between1980-82.    

I love the sounds of Indian classical music, but I am not a musicologist, so the sahitya rather than the sangita is what I work with as a scholar. I am a poet and for a long time I have written lyrics—jotting them in notebooks. I enjoyed reading the lives of the saints in my childhood, and so the poet-composer-saint Thyagaraja was a historical figure I wanted to study. I felt that music has a power beyond explanation. I wanted to write about the mystic-musician.

 I loved to attend many concerts during the time I was studying Thyagaraja in Chennai. I interviewed musicians and musicologists because I was ignorant of the tradition, and was determined to learn as much as I could. I’m a historian of religion and so I am concerned more with the lives and works of the saints, rather than music. Later, when I became a professor at Indiana University, my job description was to continue researching other topics related to my study of South Indian devotion and music. And so I studied Namasiddhanta in the Kaveri delta, and the Vijayanagara empire singer-saints, etc.

“There’s feeling in Thyagaraja’s songs and also wisdom. “

I studied Sanskrit with Prof Daniel Ingalls for three years at Harvard, and studied Telugu at the University of Wisconsin, with Prof Velcharu Naranayan Rao, and at the University of Madras I studied Telugu (especially Thyagaraja’s Nauka Charitra text) with Prof Krishnamurthy. While in Madras for my PhD thesis research I met with T. S. Parthasarathy almost daily for 18 months to go through Thyagaraja’s krithi lyrics, translating them with him, and writing out the meanings. I studied the Kannada of Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa with Narayana Bhatt in New Delhi.

Thyagaraja’s songs have a meditative quality, the sounds put one in a meditative mood, in my experience. The lyrics of course express moods of devotion, the dramas of a devotee’s relationships to the Supreme Being. They also express reminders, sometimes in proverb-like lines, to be a good person, avoid pitfalls, and keep the faith, surrender to God’s will. So all those universal spiritual teachings are inspiring. There’s feeling in Thyagaraja’s songs and also wisdom.

It is not a perfect fit with the academic life, because bhakti is devotional love and love is not easy to talk about in a strictly rational world, but there are ways to translate the lyrics, tell the saints’ life stories, show how spiritual and creative people have been important in culture and in history.

I’ve been exploring archetypes in various ways all these years—the archetypes in singer-saints’ songs and life stories, the archetypes in storytelling, the archetypes in cultures and in psyches. In the last two decades I’ve studied archetypal psychology, in the writings of C. G. Jung and James Hillman especially. The deep images in our dreams, in our religions, in our creative works, are very important, they determine a lot. They attract us and impel us.

So for years as a university professor and writer of books and articles I worked to put forward an appreciation of the wisdom in the works of inspired people. I feel that wisdom is life-supportive, and shows the way to fulfill one’s life.

(William Jackson, Professor Emeritus Indiana University–Purdue University, Indianapolis)

An American nuclear physicist’s love for India

The family of Arthur Herrington, American scientist and strategist analyst, who passed away recently at the age of 87, visited India in April to ring in the Tamil New year visiting various temples in Bangalore. His daughters Eldrid and Edith Herrington speak about their family’s deep connect to India and to Veena player Vijaya Krishnamurthy whom Herrington cherished as his third daughter

Arthur Herrington’s daughter Dr Eldrid Herrington, Senior Fellow in Medicine at the University of London and a member of St Hugh’s College, University of Oxford, in History and Literature, wrote in her tribute to her father in the Daily Telegraph this January:

“Arthur Herrington joined the US defence department in 1965 to find that it had no complete inventory of nuclear arsenal. As Director of Nuclear Weapons he developed a full picture of the stockpile and advised that $ 500 million of weapons be scrapped. In an era of gung-ho naivety he became a bridge between scientists and politicians, educating decision makers about the life and death implications of nuclear science.

He developed MIT’s first graduate programme in Political Science, with a focus on the effectiveness of defence and intelligence. He was hired by the government for his unusual combination of scientific and strategic acumen. Without him the Johnson Nixon and Carter years may have been even more volatile than they were.”

Arthur Herrington was a man of many interests. He went to MIT for undergraduate and postgraduate studies, then worked for Standard Oil of Indiana, the Atomic Energy Commission, MIT, the MITRE Corporation, and finally the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy, from 1965 to 1980, in various roles – from 1970 to 1980 as a consultant. After that time he started and stopped a couple of companies – one designing and building boats and the other in commercial real estate.

The family’s relationship with India began with their grandfather- Arthur William Sidney Herrington. Eldrid narrates the story. “The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in December 1941 and America entered the war. In March 1942, Roosevelt knew that Churchill was sending Sir Stafford Cripps to India to discuss Indian “independence” and India’s participation in the war effort. He sent his own envoy to counter the Cripps Mission, Louis A. Johnson, who had been his Undersecretary of War. Louis brought my grandfather, whose company, Marmon-Herrington, had been making tanks and trucks prior to the war and for Lend-Lease.

Arthur Herrington in India in 2006

“Louis and my grandfather befriended Nehru and my grandfather in particular had great sympathy with the Indian industrialists he met, all of whose efforts had been stymied by the European preferences scheme: GD Birla, Walchand Hirachand, Tata, JC Mahindra, and, I believe, Visvesvaraya. Louis’s and my grandfather’s sympathies for Congress and for these Indian industrialists infuriated Churchill to such a great extent that he and Roosevelt had the greatest fight of their relationship. We know what happened next: Quit India.”

Eldrid has in her possession the gifts that Nehru bought for her grandmother – ‘a shawl of some of the finest handiwork ever known’, as well as a photograph inscribed by Nehru to her grandfather.

The shawl gifted by Nehru to Arthur’s mother

For Arthur himself, his love for India came with veena player Vijaya Krishnamurthy, whom he called his third daughter, along with Eldrid and Edith. Arthur was very close to Vijaya’s family and visited India to attend her nephew’s wedding. Both Edith and Eldrid have visited India several times.

Vijaya moved from Wisconsin to Maryland around September of 1992 to teach Computer Science at the local college in Montgomery County. She taught during the day and in the evening sat in Arthur’s C++ programming class.

“He was sitting across from my table and as usual I started chatting like I do with strangers. One thing lead to another and soon we went out for dinner and I was invited home for Thanksgiving in November 1992. After that I went for Christmas and then never stopped. From day one he treated me as his third daughter. We argued and cooked and talked about all topics in the world,” says Vijaya.

Her parents Alamelammal and Krishnamurthy who had visited USA from India had just returned in October 1992 back to Bangalore. They thoroughly enjoyed their visit to US but could not come back on another visit to US. Vijaya’s friendship with Arthur blossomed and in the next many years he had mastered Indian cooking and his kitchen was well equipped with all Indian spices.

Arthur with Vijaya’s father

“Art was part of my life like I was for him. He was very generous to include me throughout every event that happened after 1992. I truly feel lucky to have him as an additional American parent in addition to my loving parents. I come from  traditional Iyer family and it is amazing that everyone from the Herrington family followed all Iyer rituals when they visit India. Even recently when Art passed away on Dec 31st the Shubam for him was done as per Indian rituals on January 12, 2019.”

Vijaya introduced them to a lot of Indian customs and practices. Eldrid is a vegetarian and this dismayed Arthur, who grew up during the Depression. “He grew up during the Great Depression. He felt that no one should refuse any kind of food. I do not find that lifestyle healthy, sustainable, or ethical. He tolerated my vegetarianism because he accepted Vijaya’s vegetarianism, which he realized predated the Great Depression by several thousand years,” she says.

Her engagement with things Indian is not a dabbling kind. Eldrid loves and practices Yoga, but believes that its spiritual and cultural practice is less understood in the ‘west’. “When Vijaya’s parents were alive, I did namaskar to them. They are no longer here; so I do namaskar to their images. Vijaya showed me a form of yoga which functions as prayer.”

She loves listening to Vijaya play the Veena, and through her was introduced to Bangalore based Vainika Dr Suma Sudhindra. She also loves the music of the legendary Veena player Chitti Babu.

Arthur with his three daughters

There are parallels between her love for classical music and architecture, both Indian and Western. “This is how I think about my introduction to Indian music, having grown up with “classical” music. I grew up loving cathedrals and knew the stonemasons who created the National Cathedral in Washington DC. I went to many churches and cathedrals across Europe, spanning a wide variety of styles. Vijaya took me to Hoysala temples in Karnataka, with stonework so fine and strong that thin strings are suspended from their player’s fingers by the width of a reed. I had never seen anything so beautiful. I feel a bit that way about Indian music. It is ancient and complex and seems to have incorporated in its origin musical aspects only latterly embodied in jazz and compositions by Schoenberg and Webern.”

Edith Herrington lives across the Potomac River from Arthur Herrington’s house (South), in Northern Virginia (outside of Washington, D.C.) on her husband’s family farm. She visited India almost 20 years ago and says she shares her father love for travel. On her first impression about India, she says, “Viji’s family was so welcoming, the food was amazing, and that the traffic was crowded and would have scared me if I had tried to drive!

Edith says that having someone who knows the area, culture and language when traveling to other countries provides a deeper experience. “Staying with Viji’s family, I was allowed to see a home and the traditions of visiting/having visitors first hand. She and her family truly ‘rolled out the red carpet’. Hiring a car to take me to almost every temple within driving distance, going to see nature/animal preserves, even a bus ride with a group of people that allowed me to stop the entire group, just to take a picture of a haystack! (My husband does hay for his family’s farm and I was thrilled to see how it was done differently, if even for a moment.)”

Had Vijaya not invited her, Edith says she would have visited India anyway, but “more likely gotten the “tourist experience” up north, including the Taj. I have a whole “bucket list” of places to travel, and after my husband retires we will probably visit those locations!”

The love and respect that Vijaya’s family and the Herrington family share is very apparent to anyone seeing them together. Curious, I asked Edith if this very obvious kindness and graciousness is a cultural trait or something unique to their families.

Edith observes that her father was always bringing home strays – human or animal! “We have a tradition passed down from his parents, to share in our good fortune, provide shelter, and a comfortable place to stay for anyone who needs it. I carried that tradition along by bringing home from school people who didn’t have a place to celebrate the holidays. Sometimes my car was packed to the brim with people, and dad was always happy to have a crowded house.”

Edith is not sure whether this love for the athithi or guest is a global, regional, or cultural trait. “My first thought is that dad got it from his British family, but truly I think it is just what he would have called “good breeding” — just the right thing to do, the right way to be. If you have the food, the space, the ability to do so, why not get to know someone new over some good food and time together? I don’t have much space at my house, but I do what I can to house our many family members and friends when they are in town! I am not the consummate host that my dad was, but I try!”

One can’t help but think, Arthur’s daughters are so very Indian.